The Silent Valley National Park

Usha K
The beauty of the area is breathtaking. Cool breeze filled atmosphere is energizing. This is the evergreen, Silent Valley National Park. The area where the National park is located is known in Malayalam as Sairandhri Vanam, Sairandhri’s forest. Sairandri is the name Draupadi, the wife of the Pandavas assumed when she was the assistant to Queen Sudeshna of the Kingdom of Viraat, while they were living incognito during the final year of their exile. The legend says that during their wanderings they came to a breathtakingly beautiful valley where the lush green grass lands met the wooded ravines, where the tigers and elephants drank water together from a green hued river bubbling its course through dense forest. It is believed that the Pandavas stayed here in a cave on a hill slope on the banks of this river.
The Silent Valley National Park with a core of approximately 89.52 square kilometres is located in the Nilgiri Hills, Palakkad District of Kerala. One of the last undisturbed tracts of the South Western Ghats mountain rain forests and tropical moist evergreen forests in India.
Home to the largest population of the Lion-tailed Macaque, in 1973 Silent Valley became the focal point of environmental debate when the Kerala State Electricity Board decided to implement an hydro electric project there. In 1976 the KSEB announced its plans to build a dam there. In 1983, the then Prime Minister of India, a strong environmentalist and nature lover, decided to abandon the project. The Silent Valley Forests were declared as a national Park on the 15th of November in the same year. On September 7, 1985, the Silent Valley National Park was dedicated to the nation and a memorial to Indira Gandhi at Sairandhri was unveiled by the late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi. The Silent Valley National Park was designated as the core area of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve on 1st September 1986 and long term conservation efforts to preserve the Silent Valley eco system has been there since then.
The Sairandhri Vanam forests were first explored by an English team led by the Botanist Robert Wight in 1847.The area was named Silent Valley because of a perceived absence of Cicadas, a large insect with transparent wings common in hot countries. Some attribute the origin of the name to the Anglicization of Sairandhri and the third story says the area got its name because of the presence of Lion tailed monkeys whose scientific name is Macaca silenus.
Rectangular in shape, the valley is located between 11.03 degree to 11.13 degree N latitude and 76.21 to 76.35 N longitude and is separated from the eastern and northern high altitude plateaus of the Nilgiri Mountains by high continuous ridges. It slopes down gradually southward to the plains of Palakkad and it is bounded by irregular ridges in the west. With the altitude of it ranging from 658 m to 2328 m at Anginda peak most of the park lies within the altitude range of 880m to 1200 m. Blackish and slightly acidic soil is a good accumulation of organic matter. The rock of the area is granite with schists, a type of rock formed of different minerals that breaks naturally into thin flat pieces and gneiss, a type of metamorphic rock formed at high pressure and temperature deep in the ground, which generates the loamy soil of good quality containing sand, clay and decayed vegetable matter with laterite soils on slopes.
The Kunthippuzha River which divides the park into a narrow two kilometres wide eastern sector and to a five kilometres wide western sector runs the entire 15 kilometer length of the park from north to south into the Nila or Bharathappuzha River. The main tributaries of Kuntippuzha, which is of perennial nature and characterized by its crystal clear water, are Kunthancholappuzha, Karingathodu, Madrimaranthodu, Valiaparathodu and Kummathanthodu which originate from the upper slopes of the eastern side of the valley. Kunthippuzha is one of the less torrential rivers of the Western Ghats with a pesticide free catchment area.
Though Silent valley receives very good rainfall during the monsoon, as the topography of the area is diverse, the actual amount it receives varies. In the Neelikkal area in the west the mean annual rainfall is over 5000mm, while in the eastern side of the park it is around 3200mm.The park, completely enclosed within a ring of hills, has a micro climate of its own. Eighty per cent of the rainfall occurs between the months of June and September during the south-west monsoon and during the north- east monsoon months of October to November also the area gets a significant amount of rainfall.
The mean annual temperature is 20.2 degree C and during the hottest months of April and May it is 23 degree C and the temperature during the coolest months of January and February is 18 degree C. The relative humidity is consistently high because of the heavy rain fall.
The Mudugar and the Irula tribal people are indigenous to the area and live in the nearby valley of Attappady Reserved Forest. The Kurumbars occupy the highest range outside the park bordering on the Nilgiris.
Flora and Fauna
Situated in the Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests. The evergreen forests begin to give to shoals or stunted forests interfused with vast open grass lands at a height above 1500 metres. The biological data says that about a thousand species of flowering plants, 108 species of orchids, 100 ferns and its allies, 200 liverworts which are flat, branching ribbon shaped plants, the margins of which resemble the lobes of a liver, 75 lichens, and about 200 algae are present here. The researchers are of the opinion that every plant in the area has unknown potential for beneficial innovations in biotechnology.
The botanists identified flowering plants here which include 966 species belonging to 134 families and 599 genera. The Ayurvedic experts say that about 110 Ayurvedic medicinal plant species are here. Botanists recorded seven new plant species in Silent valley in recent years including Impatiens sivaranjini, a new species of Balsaminaceae in 1996.
In the Silent valley, six different tree associations including three which are restricted to the southern sector, have been identified and described. The central and northern parts of the park are the home to the rest. The flowering of the variety, Cullenia exarillata in the forest is a dominant factor in the occurrence of lion tailed monkeys. A biological study says that all the twelve species of the Silent valley tropical rain forests show good natural regeneration capability.
The animal kingdom of the valley includes birds, mammals and insects. The bird most abundantly found is the Black Bulbul. In the valley, 16 bird species are threatened or restricted as per the list of Bird Life International. Rare bird species including Ceylon Frogmouth and great Indian Hornbill are found here. At Sispara, the highest peak of the park, a new species, long-legged Buzzard, was found during the 2006 winter bird survey. Ten endangered species recorded in Red list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), were found during the survey. According to the naturalists, the valley is home to 15 endemic species. The survey recorded 138 species of birds and out them 17 species was newly observed in the Valley.
Including the threatened Lion-tailed Macaque, Nilgiri Langur, Malabar Giant Squirrel, Nilgiri Tahr, Peshwa’s Bat and Hairy-winged Bat, there are at least 34 species of mammals at the Silent valley. The forest is one of the most undisturbed habitats left for many endemic and endangered primates. Mammels like the tiger, leopard, leopard cat, jungle cat, fishing cat, Common Palm Civet, Small Indian Civet, Brown Palm Civet, Ruddy Mongoose and Stripe-necked Mongoose are present in the valley.
Present Challenges
Forest fires due to negligence and by people engaged in grazing livestock who often burn an area to get fresh grass shoots during dry seasons are among the major threats facing the forests of Kerala and also the cutting down of hundreds of acres of evergreen tropical forest in the Attappady Hills.
Save Silent Valley, a social movement aimed at the protection of the valley was started in 1973. To save one of our precious heritages many steps are being taken by both the Central and Sate Governments. Since the declaration of it as the core area of the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve by the late Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi on September 1st 1986, long term conservation efforts have been undertaken to preserve the Silent valley ecosystem. The Kerala Government has formally approved the 147.22 square kilometres Silent valley buffer Zone which is mainly at checking illegal activities in the area and to help long term sustainability of the precious rain forest.


  1. aborally…

    Hi, great post, im looking for job at Mozilla for long time, i was monitoring Kitsune and Zamboni at github and understanding the code. How many time is the position available, the problem is that im in Cuba where internet is awful and i will be out in…

  2. Now you have your new web site and you’re eager to start making some sales! However, how are you going to make gross sales if you do not need excessive volumes of visitors to your website?

  3. It’s a pity you don’t have a donate button! i’d definitely donate to this superb blog! suppose for now i’ll
    settle for bookmarking and adding your RSS feed to my google account. I look forward to brand new updates and will share this website with
    facebook group. Chat soon!

  4. Hello there, just became aware of your blog through Google, and found that it is truly informative. I am gonna watch out for brussels. I’ll be grateful if you continue this in future. A lot of people will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  5. I wished to thanks for this excellent read!! I definitely enjoying every little bit of it.I have you saved to check out new stuff you post. My best wishes, Sharice.

  6. This blog seems to recieve a good ammount of visitors. How do you promote it? It offers a nice unique spin on things. I guess having something useful or substantial to talk about is the most important thing.

  7. Good site! I truly love how it is easy on my eyes and the data are well written. I am wondering how I might be notified whenever a new post has been made. I have subscribed to your RSS which must do the trick! Have a nice day!

  8. Excellent post. I was checking constantly this blog and I am impressed! Very useful information specially the last part 🙂 I care for such information much. I was looking for this certain info for a very long time. Thank you and best of luck.

  9. Thank you for another informative blog. Where else could I get that kind of info written in such a perfect way? I have a project that I am just now working on, and I have been on the look out for such information.

  10. I don’t generally answer to blogposts however I would in this situation. Interesting post. Where did you’ve got many of the information from? Anyway thank you just for this superior submit! This best wishes.

  11. I was reflective the other day that there must be a mo = ‘modus operandi’ with a view my kids to mode at familiar with what they learn in class. Then it bash me – songs!! Take a melody common round and honest in their heads and they’ll not in a million years overlook it!
    The stew is that most English songs have too recondite and often not exceptionally salutary lyrics. So I decided to write a long story in compensation each of my English games, using merely the idiolect used in distinction! This is the original “How are you?
    [url=]chuyen phat nhanh[/url]

  12. This is my first time i go post. I collected so many interesting things in your site especially its discussion. From the tons of comments on your articles, I guess I am not the only one having all the enjoyment here! keep up the good work.Regards Eating the right amounts of the right types of food can also boost your energy.

  13. Hi, superior post. I’m a massive fan of one’s weblog. I’ve been attempting to get ahold of you to see if maybe we can discuss some ideas about article by way of an electronic mail chat. If you can, amazing. Or else, no worries.

  14. This is my first time i go post. I collected so many interesting things in your site especially its discussion. From the tons of comments on your posts, I guess I am not the only one having all the enjoyment here! keep up the good work.Regards To begin with, it excepts 20 different memory card formats from every kind – from MicroSD to Sony memory sticks – all except your standard thumb drive.

  15. Hi folks, – came across this internet site by chance when looking round the internet this evening, and happy that I did! I like the design and style and different shades, but I need to mention that I’m having issues when it loads. I’m making use of Safari 4 internet browser for mac, and the footer wouldn’t lineup well. i’m pretty sure I have employed an identical layout on a company’s site, but the menu seems O.k on mine. I think the problem is at this end & maybe it’s time to switch!

  16. You ought to really think about working on expanding this blog into a major authority in this market. You certainly have a grasp handle of the subjects everybody is searching for on this site anyways and you could undoubtedly even gain a buck or two off of some advertising. I would explore following recent topics and raising the amount of write ups you put up and I guarantee you’d begin seeing some awesome targeted traffic in the near future. Just a thought, good luck in whatever you do!

  17. As a fitness center owner, one way you can do this is to advance qualified staff to mid level management positions. Hormones 101. What You Really Need to Know About Natural Hormone Health by Dr.

  18. Thank you for give very good info. Your blog is very goodI am impressed by the information that you have on this blog. It shows how well you understand this subject. Bookmarked this page, will come back for more. You, my friend, ROCK! I found just the information I already searched everywhere and just couldn’t find. What a perfect site. Like this website your website is one of my new favs.I like this data given and it has given me some sort of commitment to succeed for some reason, so thanks

  19. Me and my friend were arguing about an issue similar to this! Now I know that I was right. lol! Thanks for the information you post. With bankruptcy law, that’s no different than anything else.

  20. My brother and I have been just debating this very topic, he’s always looking to prove me completely wrong. Your view on this is excellent and just how I feel. I just now mailed my brother this site to show him your current perspective. Immediately after overlooking your web site I bookmarked and will be coming back to read your posts!

  21. I am speechless. This is a fantastic blog and very engaging too. Excellent work! That’s not really much coming from an amateur blogger like me, but it’s all I could say after enjoying your posts. Great grammar and vocabulary. Unlike other blogs. You really know what you’re talking about too. So much that you made me want to explore more. Your blog has become a stepping stone for me, my fellow blogger. Thanks for the articulate journey. I really enjoyed the 8 posts that I have read so far.

  22. Comfortably, the article is in reality the greatest on this valuable topic. I concur with your conclusions and will eagerly look forward to your approaching updates. Saying thanks will not just be enough, for the extraordinary lucidity in your writing. I will at once grab your rss feed to stay abreast of any updates. Pleasant work and much success in your business endeavors!

  23. @chels I know what you mean, its hard to find good help these days. People now days just don’t have the work ethic they used to have. I mean consider whoever wrote this post, they must have been working hard to write that good and it took a good bit of their time I am sure. I work with people who couldn’t write like this if they tried, and getting them to try is hard enough as it is.

  24. Hello, been recently keeping with your posting on the internet, but rarely posted a single thing before. Thought I’d personally chime in. I found the article you wrote rather informative. There are a small number of details that weren’t very clear, but by and large, the post is goof — not that you require anyone suggesting what you already know, hehe. Anyhow, continue the good work!

  25. Wonderful blog! I actually love how it is easy on my eyes and also the details are well written. I am wondering how I could be notified whenever a new post has been made. I have subscribed to your rss feed which really should do the trick! Have a nice day!

  26. Thank you for this post. I have read a lot online about this stuff and haven’t yet find a resource that is as complete as your site, and this post is a glowing endorsement of that. I will most definitely bookmark this post and share it with my friends because I think this info is very valuable. Most of the blogs I read out there aren’t all that great to tell the truth, I feel like most bloggers are just trying to deliver more content, not better content – appreciate being different!

  27. Fantastic blog! I truly love how it is easy on my eyes and the facts are well written. I am wondering how I could be notified whenever a new post has been made. I have subscribed to your rss feed which need to do the trick! Have a nice day!

  28. Yo, an impressive information dude. Thanks for sharing! However I’m experiencing issue with ur rss feed. Don’t know why Unable to subscribe. Is there anyone experiencing identical RSS problem? Anyone who can help please respond. Thank you.

  29. Useful article. Decided it was a very good read and definitely thought invoking. I didn’t go along with all you had to say concerning the subject, but on the whole, I realized you acknowledged your point nicely. Simply thought I’d chime along with a remark right here. Look forward to your next, interesting article

  30. Enjoyable piece of writing. Decided it was a rather good read and definitely thought provoking. I did not agree with everything you had to express regarding the subject, but on a whole, I realized you stated your point well. Just thought I would chime in with a comment right here. Look forward to your next, fascinating posting

  31. Helpful commentary. Thought it was a very good read and clearly thought invoking. I didn’t concur with all you had to express concerning the subject, but on a whole, I think overall you said your own point well. Just thought I’d personally chime in with a comment here. Look forward to the next, fascinating posting

  32. I am not truly certain if best methods include emerged around stuff similar to that, other than I am definite that your great job is obviously identified. I was thinking if you offer any membership near your RSS feeds since I would be very interested.

  33. This content ought to be praised as it makes us believe as it true. I follow quite a few blogs but I have never gone through such an amazing blog before. Honestly speaking I cherish following your work as it inspire me a lot.

  34. Not long ago, I did not give plenty of consideration to making responses on blog page reports and have left feedback even less. Reading by way of your nice article, will support me to do so sometimes.

  35. Heya who hosts yuor web blog? I’ve seen the previous several weeks it actually loads like crap on behalf of me, I’ll hold returning the following regardless of what due to the fact your subject matter are brilliant, but dude.!!.I detest the unhurried speeds just lately.!!.

  36. Even if there is no deterrence, just keeping them away from others for a while will certainly cut down on the problems.I tend to place a lot of blame on socioeconomic circumstances (and culture) too, but until we have a better science of psychology, some sort of punishment (or the threat of it) is still neccessary.

  37. I remember reading that national unemployment may actually go up 1% as a result of the spill itself and then the layoff of relief workers when its over. This would include the fisherman who were contracted to help out who will now be let go.Guess we’ll see.

  38. Im no professional, but I think you just built the very best point. You clearly know a good deal about what youre referring to, and I can genuinely get behind that. Thanks for being so upfront and so honest in regards to the subject matter matter. I actually feel like I’ve a greater understanding now.

  39. This web site has undoubtedly altered my perspective on this matter. Theres no way I wouldve believed about it this way if I hadnt appear throughout your website. All I was accomplishing was cruising the web and I found your blog and all of your sudden my views have altered. Good on you!

  40. As I’ve commented many times, dispite my huge disdain for the man, as I read through the transcripts, I became more and more upset that the Feds had described the case as a slam dunk. I certainly know that you can be convicted of planning a crime, even if it does not go through. But this seemed like less than planning than, on many parts, musings “Hmmm, maybe I could do such and such, Whadya think?” To me that is not a should not be crime.

  41. Pretty good article. I just stumbled upon your site and wanted to say that I have really enjoyed reading your blog posts. Any way I’ll be subscribing to your feed and I hope you post again soon.

  42. I dont know what to say. This is surely among the better blogs Ive read. Youre so insightful, have much authentic things to bring towards table. I wish that far more individuals read this and get what I got from it: chills. Wonderful work and good web site. I cant wait to study more, retain them comin!

  43. I just cant stop reading this. Its so cool, so full of information that I just didnt know. Im glad to see that people are actually writing about this issue in such a smart way, showing us all different sides to it. Youre a great blogger. Please keep it up. I cant wait to read whats next.

  44. The Kreg Jig Pocket Hole System (K4) is the perfect choice for do-it-yourselfers and anyone new to Kreg Joinery. Whether you’re building your first set of garage storage shelves or making simple repairs around the house, the Kreg Jig Pocket Hole System can help you finish the job in less time, and with far less effort than you ever thought possible.

  45. Online shopping is rapidly becoming the first choice of people in the world for modernized or traditional shopping. Gradually, online shopping is being accepted as the new and fashionable way of shopping. It is becoming popular because people have many other things to do in their busy life and shopping online saves time in numerous ways.

  46. Hello,I love reading through your blog, I wanted to leave a little comment to support you and wish you a good continuation. Wishing you the best of luck for all your blogging efforts.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here