Tuesday, April 7th, 2020

Some Characteristics of Urban Slums, 2008-09

INVC,, Delhi,,

The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) has released Report No.534 titled "Some Characteristics of Urban Slums, 2008-09" based on the survey of urban slums conducted in its 65th round. The field work of the nationwide survey was carried out during July 2008 to June 2009. This report is based on the data collected from 365 notified and 365 non-notified slums found in 4738 surveyed urban blocks.

The survey covered the whole of the Indian Union except for Leh (Ladakh) and Kargil districts of Jammu & Kashmir, (ii) interior villages of Nagaland situated beyond five kilometres of a bus route and (iii) villages in Andaman and Nicobar Islands which remain inaccessible throughout the year.

The aim of the survey was to collect information on the present condition of the slums and on recent changes, if any, in the condition of facilities available therein. Both ‘notified slums’ – areas notified as slums by the municipalities, corporations, local bodies or development authorities – and non-notified slums were surveyed – a non-notified slum being any compact urban area with a collection of poorly built tenements, mostly of temporary nature, crowded together usually with inadequate sanitary and drinking water facilities in unhygienic conditions.

The present report gives the condition of urban slums, covering ownership, area type, structure, road within and approaching the slum, living facilities like electricity, drinking water, latrine, sewerage, drainage, garbage disposal, and distance of slums from the nearest primary school and government hospital/health centre. It also estimates the proportion of slums where certain specific facilities have improved/ deteriorated over the five years preceding the date of survey.

Comprehensive data on this subject was last collected by NSSO in its 58th round (July - December 2002). The present report provides key indicators from the 58th round as well, for comparison.

Some important findings of the survey are given below.

· About 49 thousand slums were estimated to be in existence in urban India in 2008-09, 24% of them were located along nallahs and drains and 12% along railway lines.

· About 57% of slums were built on public land, owned mostly by local bodies, state government, etc.

· In 64% of notified slums, a majority of the dwellings were pucca, the corresponding percentage for the non-notified ones being 50%.

· For 95% slums, the major source of drinking water was either tap or tubewell.

· Only 1% notified and 7% non-notified slums did not have electricity connection.

· About 78% of notified slums and 57% of the non-notified slums had a pucca road inside the slum.

· About 73% notified and 58% non-notified slums had a motorable approach road.

· About 48% of the slums were usually affected by waterlogging during monsoon – 32% with inside of slum waterlogged as well as approach road to the slum, 7% where the slum was waterlogged but not the approach road, and 9% where only the approach road was waterlogged in the monsoon.

· The sanitary conditions in the slums in terms of latrine facility during 2008-09 showed considerable improvement since 2002. Latrines with septic tanks (or similar facility) were available in 68% notified and 47% non-notified slums (up from 66% and 35% respectively in 2002). At the other extreme, 10% notified and 20% non-notified slums (down from 17% and 51% in 2002) did not have any latrine facility at all.

· About 10% notified and 23% non-notified slums did not have any drainage facility. The corresponding proportions in 2002 had been 15% for notified and 44% for non-notified slums. Underground drainage systems or drainage systems constructed of pucca materials existed in about 39% notified slums (25% in 2002) and 24% non-notified slums (13% in 2002).

· Underground sewerage existed in about 33% notified slums (30% in 2002) and 19% non-notified slums (15% in 2002).

· Government agencies were collecting garbage from 75% notified and 55% non-notified slums. Among these slums, garbage was collected at least once in 7 days in 93% notified and 92% non-notified slums. About 10% notified and 23% non-notified slums did not have any regular mechanism for garbage disposal.

· Over the last five years, facilities had improved in about 50% of notified slums in terms of roads (both within-slum road and approach road) and water supply. The incidence of deterioration of any of the existing facilities in notified slums during the last five years was quite low (about 6% or below).

· In case of most slum facilities – sewerage and medical facilities being exceptions – the facility was reported to have improved during the last five years in more than 20% of non-notified slums. Deterioration of any of the existing facilities in non-notified slums, like notified slums, was rare (about 9% or below).

· Facilities such as street light, latrine, drainage, sewerage and medical facilities were each reported by more than 10% of notified slums to be non-existent both at the time of survey and five years earlier. In case of non-notified slums, facilities like street light, latrine, drainage, sewerage and garbage disposal were each reported by more than 20% of the slums to be non-existent, both during the survey and five years earlier.

· Where improvement had been brought about during the last 5 years, it was due to the Government’s efforts in about 80-90% of slums, both notified as well as non-notified and for all the facilities. Improvement in educational facilities at primary level was attributed to NGOs in 13% of the notified slums where such improvement was reported. NGOs were also found to have played a role in the improvement of latrine and sewerage system in non-notified slums.

The percentage distribution of slums in some major States by type of ownership of land is given at Annexure.

Percentage distribution of slums in some major States by type of ownership of land

State/UT

notified slum

non-notified slum

private

public

not known /n.r.

private

public

not known /n.r.

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

Andhra Pradesh

41

59

0

53

46

1

Delhi

12

66

23

29

67

5

Gujarat

50

50

0

20

74

7

Karnataka

2

98

0

47

47

7

Madhya Pradesh

32

68

0

34

66

0

Maharashtra

33

67

1

43

50

7

Orissa

0

100

0

28

71

1

Tamil Nadu

18

80

2

35

66

0

Uttar Pradesh

73

16

11

81

19

0

West Bengal

69

23

7

62

28

10

all-India: 2008-09

37

60

3

42

54

5

all-India: 2002

36

64

1

35

63

2

1111111

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